If you don't want a nuts-and-bolts explanation of academic administrivia, this is the post to skip.
On college campuses, "tenure" indicates the granting of permanent status, after some sort of probationary period, and "rank" indicates one's title or standing, and is broadly associated with length of employment. For instance, I started out as an assistant professor, and I am now up for consideration as full professor (the top rank! whoot!), while I got tenure almost two years ago. Practically speaking, rank indicates salary level.
So I've got the rest of my R&T packet together: I have crunched the numbers from my student evals and displayed them prettily; I have had the requisite number of peers visit my classroom and send in their evals; my chair has written her letter; I've updated my curriculum vitae (what the rest of the world calls a "resume"). Now I must write my self-eval, judging my own performance over the last two years, and making the case for a change in rank. It's due during the first week in July. I actually was up for rank last summer, but had such a bad year and was so unprepared that I just plain skipped it--salary increase and all. I just couldn't get my act together; partially because medical leave made me short some evals (which the R&T committee probably would have waived, given the reason), but mainly because I just couldn't face the self-eval.
So I've got to get this monster done. I'm a business writer: I can do this.